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J Anal Res Clin Med. 2013;1(1):32-42.
doi: 10.5681/jarcm.2013.005
  Abstract View: 970
  PDF Download: 439

Original Research

Designing and standardization of Persian version of verbal fluency test among Iranian bilingual (Turkish-Persian) adolescents

Ayyoub Malek 1 * , Iesa Hekmati 2, Shahrokh Amiri 3, Jaber Pirzadeh 4, Hossein Gholizadeh 5

1 Professor, Clinical Psychiatry Research Center (CPRC), Department of Psychiatry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz,
2 Faculty Member, Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Clinical Psychiatry Research Center (CPRC), Department of Psychiatry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences,
4 Faculty Member, Department of Psychology, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran
5 Faculty Member, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


BACKGROUND: The present study aims to design and standardize the verbal fluency test (VFT) among bilingual (Turkish-Persian) adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: In the designing stage, 190 adolescents who were already selected randomly from among the guidance and high school students in Tabriz were classified into three age groups (11-12, 13-15, 16-18). The screening test including 33 Persian letters and three ‘animal’, ‘fruit’, and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories, and SDQ was administered to them. The results were the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency, and two ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories for semantic fluency in the Persian language. In the standardization stage, the letters and categories specified in the designing stage were administered in the same order to 302 adolescents. Moreover, 28 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD were selected to estimate the discriminant validity of VFT. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficient between test-retest of the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency were estimated at 0.67, 0.66, and 0.75, respectively. Furthermore, for the two categories of ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ it was estimated to be 0.80 and 0.65, respectively. All these amounts were significant (P < 0.01). The discriminant validity, which was estimated through comparison between the scores of normal and ADHD adolescents, showed that the obtained t value for all indices except for the letter ‘B’ was meaningful. The results of MANOVA between two gender groups were significant at P < 0.05 for three ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ variables of verbal fluency and ‘animal’ semantic fluency. In both verbal and semantic fluency the mean of subjects’ performance scores showed that females outperformed males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study indicated that VFT is reliable in the studied sample group, and has a valid psychometric property in discrimination between ADHD adolescents and normal adolescents. Furthermore, ageand sex could affect VFT performance
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Submitted: 01 Jul 2013
Accepted: 06 Sep 2013
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