J Anal Res Clin Med. 2014;2(4):187-192.
doi: 10.5681/jarcm.2014.031
  Abstract View: 510
  PDF Download: 354

Original Research

Study of renal stones complications in 200 patients in Tabriz, Iran

Hamid Noshad 1, Farhad Ahmadpour 2, Bita Soltanpour 3 * , Morteza Ghojazadeh 4

1 Associate Professor, Chronic Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
3 General Practitioner, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Liver and Gastrointestinal Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Introduction: Urinary stones are the third most common disease of the urinary. Renal stones may lead to some preventable complications. This study was designed to investigation and prediction of these complications. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 patients with kidney stones were enrolled. Kidney stone was confirmed and proven in all patients referred to Sina and Shaikh Al-Rais clinics. Their demographic characteristics like gender, age, stone number, stone type, renal failure and bio-chemistry data were evaluated. Results: Of 200 patients, 130 cases (65.0%) were male and 70 cases (35.0%) were female. The mean age of patients was 41.30 ± 16.06 years. Type of stone was (when evaluation was possible) was mixed (11.5%). However, the type of stone was not analyzed in 112 cases (56.0%). Among complications, recurrent infection was seen (16.0%), and staghorn stones were seen in 2.5% of patients. Dialysis was positive in 3 patients (1.5%). History of surgery was positive in 3 patients (1.5%). Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) history was positive in 8%. In evaluated patients, the mean level of calcium was 8.83 ± 0.27, phosphorus was 4.60 ± 0.33, parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 35.20 ± 14.22, uric acid was 4.98 ± 1.57, creatinine was 1.38 ± 1.02 and blood urea nitrogen level was 16.69 ± 11.54 mg/dl. Staghorn stones are significantly associated with progression to renal failure and subsequent complications such as hemodialysis (P = 0.001), surgery (P = 0.001). Recurrent infection was more frequent in calcium-containing stones (P = 0.001) and ESWL undergoing patients (P = 0.030). Stone numbers were more than 3 in hemodialyzed (HD) patients (P = 0.001). Uric acid stones were more seen in HD patients (P = 0.170). Conclusion: According to results hemodialysis and recurrent infections are seen in patients with renal stones, and they may be detected in earlier with close periodic follow-up.
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Submitted: 05 May 2014
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